Glacier Index of Posts

Glacier Index List
Below is a list of the individual glacier posts examining our warming climates impact on each glacier. This represents the first 2.7 years of posts, 180 total posts, 166 different glaciers. I have worked directly on 40. The others are prompted by fine research that I had come across, cited in each post or inquiries from readers and other scientists. I then look at additional often more recent imagery to expand on that research. The imagery comes either from MODIS, Landsat, Geoeye or Google Earth.

United States
Columbia Glacier, Washington
Lyman Glacier, Washington
Boulder Glacier, Washington
Ptarmigan Ridge Glacier, Washington
Anderson Glacier, Washington
Milk Lake Glacier, Washington
Paradise Glacier, Washington
Easton Glacier, Washington
Redoubt Glacier, Washington
Honeycomb Glacier, Washington
Vista Glacier, Washington
Rainbow Glacier, Washington
Daniels Glacier, Washington
Colonial Glacier, Washington
Quien Sabe Glacier, Washington
Mazama Glacier
Fairchild Glacier, Washington
White Glacier, Washington
Banded Glacier, Washington
Borealis Glacier, Washington
Hinman Glacier, Washington
Lower Curtis Glacier, Washington
McAllister Glacier, Washington
Lewis Glacier, Washington
Kennedy Glacier, Washington
Fremont Glacier, Wyoming
Minor Glacier, Wyoming
Grasshopper Glacier, Wyoming
Grasshopper Glacier, Montana
Harrison Glacier, Montana
McDonald Glacier, Montana
Sperry Glacier, Montana
Hopper Glacier, Montana
Old Sun Glacier, Montana
Yakutat Glacier, Alaska
Grand Plateau Glacier, Alaska
Eagle Glacier, Alaska
Gilkey Glacier , Alaska
Gilkey Glacier ogives, Alaska
Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska
Taku Glacier, Alaska
Bear Lake Glacier, Alaska
Chickamin Glacier, Alaska
Okpilak Glacier, Alaska
Sawyer Glacier, Alaska
Antler Glacier, Alaska
Field Glacier
East Taklanika Glacier, Alaska
Brady Glacier, Alaska
Brady Glacier Retreat lake expansion 2004-2010
Thiel Glacier, Alaska
Speel Glacier, Alaska

Canada
Icemantle Glacier, BC
Bridge Glacier, British Columbia
Washmawapta Glacier, British Columbia
Bubagoo Glacier, British Columbia
Hector Glacier, Alberta
Helm Glacier, British Columbia
Melbern Glacier
Warren Glacier, British Columbia
Castle Creek Glacier, British Columbia
Hoboe Glacier, British Columbia
Tulsequah Glacier, British Columbia
Decker and Spearhead Glacier, British Columbia
Columbia Glacier, British Columbia
Freshfield Glacier, British Columbia
Apex Glacier, British Columbia
Devon Ice Cap, Nunavut
Penny ice Cap, Nunavut
Penny Ice Cap SW, Nunavut
Snowshoe Peak, Yukon

New Zealand
Tasman Glacier
Murchison Glacier
Donne Glacier
Mueller Glacier, NZ
Gunn Glacier, NZ

Africa
Rwenzori Glaciers

Himalaya
Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal
Samudra Tupa, India
Zemu Glacier, Sikkim
Theri Kang Glacier, Bhutan
Zemestan Glacier, Afghanistan
Khumbu Glacier, Nepal
Imja Glacier, Nepal
Gangotri Glacier, India
Milam Glacier, India
Satopanth Glacier, India
Kali Gandaki Headwaters, Nepal
Menlung Glacier, Tibet
Boshula Glaciers, Tibet
Urumquihe Glacier, Tibet
Sara Umaga Glacier, India
Dzhungharia Alatau, Kazakhstan
Petrov Glacier,Kyrgyzstan
Hailuogou Glacier, China

Europe
Taconnaz GLacier, France
Mer de Glace, France
Dargentiere Glacier, France
Grand Motte and Pramort Glacier Tignes Ski area, France
Saint Sorlin, France
Sommelier Glacier
Obeeraar Glacier, Austria
Ochsentaler Glacier, Austria
Pitzal Glacier, Austria
Dosde Glacier, Italy
Maladeta Glacier, Spain
Presena Glacier, Italy
Triftgletscher, Switzerland
Rotmoosferner, Austria
Stubai Glacier, Austria
Hallstatter Glacier, Austria
Ried Glacier, Switzerland
Cavagnoli Glacier, Switzerland
Chuebodengletscher and Ghiacciaio-del-Pizzo-Rotondo
Forni Glacier, Italy
Peridido Glacier, Spain
Engabreen, Norway
Midtdalsbreen, Norway
Tunsbergdalsbreen, Norway
TungnaarJokull, Iceland
Gigjokull, Iceland
Skeidararjokull, Iceland
Kotlujokull, Iceland
Lednik Fytnargin, Russia
Rembesdalsskaka, Norway
Irik Glacier, Mount Elbrus, Russia

Greenland and European Arctic
Mittivakkat Glacier
Ryder Glacier
Humboldt Glacier
Petermann Glacier
Kuussuup Sermia
Jakobshavn Isbrae
Umiamako Glacier
Kong Oscar, Glacier
Upernavik Glacier
Sortebrae Glacier, Greenland
Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic
Hansbreen, Svalbard
Nannbreen, Svalbard
Hornbreen and Hambergbreen, Svalbard
Roze and Sredniy Glacier, Novaya Zemyla

South America
Colonia Glacier, Chile
Artesonraju Glacier, Peru
Nef Glacier, Chile
Tyndall Glacier, Chile
Zongo Glacier, Bolivia
Llaca Glacier, Peru
Seco Glacier, Argentina
Onelli Glacier, Argentina
Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru
Glacier Gualas, Chile

Antarctica and Circum Antarctic Islands
Pine Island Glacier
Fleming Glacier
Hariot Glacier
Amsler Island
Stephenson Glacier, Heard Island
Neumayer, South Georgia
Ampere, Kerguelen
Nordenskjold Coast, Antarctic Peninsula
Prospect Glacier, Antarctic Peninsula
Ross Hindle Glacier, South Georgia
Vega Island Ice Cap
Rohss Bay, James Ross Island, Antarctica

North Cascade Glacier Climate Project Reports

Forecasting Glacier Survival
North Cascade Glacier Mass Balance 2010
Columbia Glacier Annual Time Lapse
North Cascade Glacier Climate Project 2009 field season
28th Field Season Schedule of the North Cascade Glacier Climate Project
North Cascade Glacier Climate Project 2011 Field Season
BAMS 2010
2011 Glacier mass balance North Cascades and Juneau Icefield
Taku Glacier TSL Paper

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McDonald Glacier, Montana Retreat

McDonald Glacier is in the Mission Range of the Montana southeast of Flathead Lake. It is the largest and one of only two significant glaciers in this range. The glacier is tucked under the north side of McDonald Peak. The glacier was over 1 kilometer long in the 1966 USGS map of the region. By 2005 the glacier has lost 45% of its area, retreating 200 meters on average and losing one of its accumulation areas. A comparison of the map image, 2003 and 2005 image illustrate this retreat, orange line is the map terminus, black lines the terminus in 2003 and 2005. Two closeup views indicate a key exposure of rock in the midst of the glacier, black arrow. Three former areas of accumulation A,B and C are also noted. At this point area C is no longer part of the glacier. A and B both still indicate some minor crevassing indicating the glacier is not stagnant, and that these areas have been an accumulation area in the years prior to 2005. Accumulation area B in the first closeup looks to have a minimal connection to the main glacier, and is such a small area, that it is on the path of accumulation area C to disappearance. In Montana there are many glaciers that are rapidly disappearing (Hopper Glacier, and a few that are only shrinking slowly (Harrison Glacier). McDonald Glacier is in between these two paths retreating steadily, but not on the verge of disappearing, Sperry Glacier is another example of this response type.

Snowshoe Peak Glacier Retreat, Yukon

There was the Yukon Gold Rush and then there are a number of surging glaciers in the Yukon. These two have drawn our attention. In Kluane National Park, besides the large surging outlet glaciers draining the St. Elias Mountains (Donjek, Lowell, Kaskawulsh etc.) there are numerous smaller alpine glaciers in ranges just east of the St. Elias. In a recent ice core study in the Eclipse Icefield it was found that the Gold Rush led to higher fire activity (Yalcin et al., 2004). This post examines several of these glaciers that have not been the focus of any detailed study, in the are of Airdrop Lake and Snowshoe Peak. Each of the glaciers is 1.5 to 2.0 kilometers long, beginning near 2100 meters the summit area of Snow Peak and terminating between 1800 and 1900 m. This is relatively small elevation change for alpine glaciers. In the 2003 Google Earth Imagery the lack of snowcover is evident. The blue line is the terminus position from the map of 1970’s and the brown line a 1998 satellite image. There are a few outrops of rock in the midst of the glacier that formerly terminated at Airdrop Lake. Comparison of a 1987 (top), 2003 (middle) and a 2010 (bottom) Landsat image indicate that the two key outcrops that were in the midst of the glacier in 1990 are at the terminus in 2010. Two others have expanded and with terminus retreat are markedly closer to the margin of the glacier in just seven years from 2003-2010. The lower section of each glacier is quite thin and uncrevassed. The lack of snowcover during many recent years indicate a mass balance loss and glacier thinning that is driving the retreat. It does not appear the glacier that flows toward Airdrop Lake can survive, with thinning high on the glacier and limited retained snowcover. There are some patches of stagnant ice near the terminus of the Airdrop Lake Glacier, this glacier has retreated 250-450 meters from the map to 2003, 20-30% of the glacier length and is still retreating quickly as the 2010 imagery indicates. The Snowshoe Peak glaciers have retreated 150 m to 300 meters which is 10-20% of the glacier length. The retreat of the small glaciers here parallels that of the larger glaciers nearby such as Melbern Glacier.

Samudra Tupa Glacier Retreat and Himalaya glacier mass losses

Samudra Tupa Glacier is one of the largest in the Chenab Basin, India. Pink arrow indicates the terminus in a glacier lake and A mark the accumulation zone with the red line indicating the equilibrium line in 1998. In a glacier inventory in the basin by Kulkarni et al (2007) the 466 glaciers in the basin were observed to have lost 21% of their total area from 1962 to 2001. This program coordinated by the Space Applications Centre of the Indian Space Research Organization, has combined field observations of the glacier with remote sensing to observe the changes in area and length of the glaciers, immediately below is a 2006 picture of the glacier terminus and proglacial lake from Kulkarni. . The terminus ends in an expanding proglacial lake. The lower glacier is heavily debris covered, has a low slope and is essentially stagnant. These factors will lead to continued retreat. In this post we use 1998, 2002 and 2011 Landsat imagery to examine the terminus of this glacier. The glacier terminates at 4225 meters, the snowline in 1998 is 5200 meters and 2002 is 5300 meters, neither of the images is at the end of the ablation season. An ELA of 5200-5300 meters leaves an accumulation area insufficient to maintain the current glacier size. In 1970 the ELA was at 4900 meters Kulkarni et al (2007) . A close up view of the termini of Samudra Tupa-pink arrow and a nearby unnamed glacier-green arrow indicate the changes in 1998, 2002 and 2011 in that order. The green arrow points not to the terminus but to a prominent knob near the end of the glacier in each image, it is the control point. The last two images illustrate the changes from 2002 to 2011 in an image overlay. The last image is the 2011 termini of Samudra Tupa Glacier from (Kulkarni, 2009). The retreat is noted by Kulkarni, 2009 as 13 meters/year during the study period. From 2002 to 2011 the glacier retreated nearly 200 m, closer to 20 meters/year. The retreat of this glacier is less than that of other large glaciers nearby Sara Umaga and Gangotri. The loss in glaciated area in the basin of 21% is also similar to other areas in the Altai, Tibet, Nepal Himalaya, Khumbu Nepal and Tien Shan.

Icemantle Glacier Retreat, British Columbia

Icemantle Glacier is on the north side of Greenmantle Peak just north of Snowcap lake in southern British Columbia, viewed from the northeast in the Google Earth image below. It is not an often visited area and the glacier has not been previously assessed for its response to climate change. Other glaciers in the area have, the outlet glaciers of Snowcap Icefield lost 17% of there area in from 1987-2007. Stave Glacier has retreated 840 meters from 1977-2002 (Koch et al, 2009) . Just to the north Freshfield Glacier has retreated since. The glacier was mapped in 1987 and at that time no lake existed close to the terminus. The lake in 2006 is 500 meters across. The glacier is 160 meters from the lake, indicating a retreat of 660 meters from 1987, blue line. In a 2009 Ikonos image the glacier has retreated an additional 75 meters. The last image in the sequence indicates the 1987 terminus position blue and 2009 terminus red. The snowline on the glacier has been at least as high as 2000 meters in 2003-2006 and 2009. This leaves less than 35% of the glacier in the accumulation zone consistently. This is insufficient to maintain equilibrium and will drive continued retreat. The ongoing retreat is also evident from the thin nature of the current terminus, a small lake is also forming at the current terminus.

Index of posts 2009-Jan. 2012

Glacier Index List
Below is a list of the individual glacier posts examining our warming climates impact on each glacier. This represents the first 2.5 years of posts, 166 total posts, 152 different glaciers. I have worked directly on 39. The others are prompted by fine research that I had come across, cited in each post or inquiries from readers and other scientists. I then look at additional often more recent imagery to expand on that research. The imagery comes either from MODIS, Landsat, Geoeye or Google Earth.

North America
Columbia Glacier, Washington
Lyman Glacier, Washington
Boulder Glacier, Washington
Ptarmigan Ridge Glacier, Washington
Anderson Glacier, Washington
Milk Lake Glacier, Washington
Paradise Glacier, Washington
Easton Glacier, Washington
Redoubt Glacier, Washington
Honeycomb Glacier, Washington
Vista Glacier, Washington
Rainbow Glacier, Washington
Daniels Glacier, Washington
Colonial Glacier, Washington
Quien Sabe Glacier, Washington
Mazama Glacier
Fairchild Glacier, Washington
White Glacier, Washington
Banded Glacier, Washington
Borealis Glacier, Washington
Hinman Glacier, Washington
Lower Curtis Glacier
McAllister Glacier, Washington
Lewis Glacier, Washington
Kennedy Glacier, Washington
Bridge Glacier, British Columbia
Washmawapta Glacier, British Columbia
Bubagoo Glacier, British Columbia
Hector Glacier, Alberta
Helm Glacier, British Columbia
Melbern Glacier
Warren Glacier, British Columbia
Castle Creek Glacier, British Columbia
Hoboe Glacier, British Columbia
Tulsequah Glacier, British Columbia
Decker and Spearhead Glacier, British Columbia
Columbia Glacier, British Columbia
Freshfield Glacier, British Columbia
Apex Glacier, British Columbia
Devon Ice Cap, Nunavut
Penny ice Cap, Nunavut
Minor Glacier, Wyoming
Grasshopper Glacier, Wyoming
Fremont Glacier, Wyoming
Grasshopper Glacier, Montana
Harrison Glacier, Montana
Sperry Glacier, Montana
Hopper Glacier, Montana
Old Sun Glacier, Montana
Yakutat Glacier, Alaska
Grand Plateau Glacier, Alaska
Eagle Glacier, Alaska
Gilkey Glacier , Alaska
Gilkey Glacier ogives, Alaska
Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska
Taku Glacier, Alaska
Bear Lake Glacier, Alaska
Chickamin Glacier, Alaska
Okpilak Glacier, Alaska
Sawyer Glacier, Alaska
Antler Glacier, Alaska
Field Glacier
East Taklanika Glacier, Alaska
Brady Glacier, Alaska
Brady Glacier Retreat lake expansion 2004-2010
Thiel Glacier, Alaska

New Zealand
Tasman Glacier
Murchison Glacier
Donne Glacier
Mueller Glacier, NZ
Gunn Glacier, NZ
Africa
Rwenzori Glaciers

Himalaya
Zemu Glacier, Sikkim
Theri Kang Glacier, Bhutan
Zemestan Glacier, Afghanistan
Khumbu Glacier, Nepal
Imja Glacier, Nepal
Gangotri Glacier, India
Milam Glacier, India
Satopanth Glacier, India
Kali Gandaki Headwaters, Nepal
Menlung Glacier, Tibet
Boshula Glaciers, Tibet
Urumquihe Glacier, Tibet
Sara Umaga Glacier, India
Dzhungharia Alatau, Kazakhstan
Petrov Glacier,Kyrgyzstan
Hailuogou Glacier, China

Europe
Mer de Glace, France
Dargentiere Glacier, France
Grand Motte and Pramort Glacier Tignes Ski area, France
Saint Sorlin, France
Sommelier Glacier
Obeeraar Glacier, Austria
Ochsentaler Glacier, Austria
Pitzal Glacier, Austria
Dosde Glacier, Italy
Maladeta Glacier, Spain
Presena Glacier, Italy
Triftgletscher, Switzerland
Rotmoosferner, Austria
Stubai Glacier, Austria
Ried Glacier, Switzerland
Cavagnoli Glacier, Switzerland
Chuebodengletscher and Ghiacciaio-del-Pizzo-Rotondo
Forni Glacier, Italy
Peridido Glacier, Spain
Engabreen, Norway
Midtdalsbreen, Norway
TungnaarJokull, Iceland
Gigjokull, Iceland
Skeidararjokull, Iceland
Kotlujokull, Iceland
Lednik Fytnargin, Russia
Rembesdalsskaka, Norway
Hansbreen, Svalbard
Nannbreen, Svalbard
Hornbreen and Hambergbreen, Svalbard
Roze and Sredniy Glacier, Novaya Zemyla
Irik Glacier, Mount Elbrus, Russia

Greenland
Mittivakkat Glacier
Ryder Glacier
Humboldt Glacier
Petermann Glacier
Kuussuup Sermia
Jakobshavn Isbrae
Umiamako Glacier
Kong Oscar, Glacier
Upernavik Glacier
Sortebrae Glacier, Greenland

South America
Colonia Glacier, Chile
Artesonraju Glacier, Peru
Nef Glacier, Chile
Tyndall Glacier, Chile
Zongo Glacier, Bolivia
Llaca Glacier, Peru
Seco Glacier, Argentina
Onelli Glacier, Argentina
Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru
Glacier Gualas, Chile

Antarctica and Circum Antarctic Islands
Pine Island Glacier
Fleming Glacier
Hariot Glacier
Amsler Island
Stephenson Glacier, Heard Island
Neumayer, South Georgia
Ampere, Kerguelen
Nordenskjold Coast, Antarctic Peninsula
Prospect Glacier, Antarctic Peninsula
Ross Hindle Glacier, South Georgia
Vega Island Ice Cap

North Cascade Glacier Climate Project Reports

Forecasting Glacier Survival
North Cascade Glacier Mass Balance 2010
Columbia Glacier Annual Time Lapse
North Cascade Glacier Climate Project 2009 field season
28th Field Season Schedule of the North Cascade Glacier Climate Project
North Cascade Glacier Climate Project 2011 Field Season
BAMS 2010
2011 Glacier mass balance North Cascades and Juneau Icefield
Taku Glacier TSL Paper

Petrov Glacier Retreat, Kyrgyzstan

Petrov Glacier flows north down the slopes of Ak-Shiyrak in the Tien Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan. The glacier ends in Petrov Lake which continues to expand as the glacier retreats. The glacier is 12 km long has three main tributaries each beginning at 4600-4700 meters and descending to the lake at 3700 meters. The lake in particular has been the focus of an extensive research project by a group Czech scientists, Cerny et al (2009)and Jansky et al (2009). This research for Geomin is driven by interest in a potential outburst flood event, the water level in the Petrov Lake and the moraine-ice dam are monitored and proposals on how to decrease the water level are being developed. Petrov Glacier is the largest glacier in the Naryn River watershed, Jansky et al (2009) report that the glacier retreated at a rate of 24 meters/year from 1957-1960, 40 meters/year from 1980-1999 and 61 m year from 1999-2006. Using two satellite images from 2001 (top) and 2011 (bottom) and Google Earth imagery from 2005 (middle) here we look in detail at the current condition of the glacier. The glacier has retreated 300 meters during the 2001-2011 period. Notice the Peninsula extending from the glacier into Petrov Lake (T). . A snapshot of the glacier at three different locations indicate the extent of the ablation zone. For points A,B and C the red arrow indicates lateral moraines, green arrows surface wind scour features that have trapped dust, and the blue arrows surface streams. Lateral moraines and surface streams cannot exist in the accumulation zone, and the wind scour features indicate locations where accumulation is not retained. Each of these feature types at A,B and C extend to 4300 meters. A glacier such as Petrov that lacks substantial avalanching and is in a region of low annual precipitation generally needs 60% of its area in the accumulation zone to be in equilibrium. The glacier has insufficient accumulation zone size recently and will have to continue to retreat. Petrov Glacier reflects the trends of the region where glaciers have lost 2 cubic kilometers per year of volume from 1955-2000, as documented by Harrison and others, University of Newcastle
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