Kluhor (Klukhor) Glacier is in the Caucasus Mountains west of Mount Elbrus. It drains into the Teberda River and then the Kuban River and eventually Krasnodar Reservoir and the Black Sea. The Krasnodar Reservoir is primarily a flood control and irrigation management reservoir. Here we examine three glaciers each experiencing the familiar pattern in the Caucasus Mountains of retreat with expansion of proglacial lakes. As the area and number of glacier is reduced, the number and area of alpine lakes is increasing, note Khimsa Glacier, Georgia, Psysh Glaciers, Russia, and Gora Bashkara, Russia. Stokes et al (2006) note that 94% of Caucasus Mountain glaciers retreated from 1985 to 2000 and it is clear from the aforementioned that the trends continues.
We examine Landsat imagery from 1998 and 2013 to identify the change. In each image the Kluhor Glacier terminus lake is indicated by the red arrow. The unnamed Glacier here named east Kluhor Glacier terminus lake is noted with a yellow arrow. Another unnamed glacier on Lednik Daut is identified here as north Daut Glacier is noted by pink and purple arrows. In 1998 there is small lake at the end of Upper Kluhor Glacier, 150 m long, and on east Kluhor Glacier, 50-100 m wide. At north Kluhor Glacier the glacier ends at the base of a steep icefall near a third lake, pink arrow. The purple arrow indicates the terminus of north Daut Glacier in each image. By 2013 Kluhor Glacier has retreated 300 m and the lake is 450-500 m long. The east Klhor Glacier has retreated 150 m and the lake is 250 m across. The north Daut Glacier has retreated to the top of the steep icefall slope, a 400 m retreat and is now quite distant from the lake below.
The 2007 Google Earth image of Kluhor Glacier there are a number of crevasses paralell to the ice front, indicating that some calving losses will continue to occur. The glacier overall extends from 2950 m to 3250 m, is narrow and has limited snowcover in both satellite images. The snowcover extent in the August satellite images, well before the end of the melt season is 30%, whereas typically 55-65% is necessary to sustain a glacier. In the 2007 Google Earth imagery the thin nature of the icefall at north Daut Glacier is evident, that has since melted away.
1998 Landsat image
2013 Landsat image
2007 Google Earth image of Kluhor Glacier
2007 Google earth image north Kluhor Glacier
Khimsa Glacier is a rare significant glacier south of the main crest of the Caucasus Mountains in Georgia. The glacier drains north to the Bzyb River, and then the Black Sea. The rivers upper reach is quite undeveloped and there is no hydropower along the river to date. The glacier flows from an elevation of 3000 m to 2650 m. In 1998 the glacier was 1.6 km long with a narrow terminus at the red arrow. At the transition to the glacier’s upper eastern slopes at Point A, there is only one small rock exposure. By 2013 the glacier has retreated 400 m to the yellow arrow, having lost 25% of its length in 15 years. The area of bedrock exposed on the upper eastern slope, at Point A, is significant now indicating thinning even high on the glacier. The glacier will soon separate near Point A into an upper and a lower section. In the Google Earth image the current terminus is indicated with orange dots and the glacier flow with blue arrows. Like Psysh Mountain glaciers 25 km north Khimsa Glacier thinning high on the glacier indicates it cannot survive current climate. Caucasus Mountain glaciers are in a period of rapid retreat (Shagedenova et al, 2009), that is attributed mainly to rising summer temperatures. Khimsa Glacier’s retreat parallels that of glaciers along the main crest of the Caucasus such as Kirtisho or Azau Glacier, though as a percent of total area lost it is greater.
1998 Landsat image
2013 Landsat image
2010 Google Earth image
Greater Azau Glacier is on the south slopes of Mount Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains of Russia. The glacier is just west of the ski complex at Prielbrusye, that has lifts from Azau at 2300 m to Krugozor at 3000 m and Mir at 3500 m. This glacier like others on Mount Elbrus and in the Caucasus Mountains is retreating. Russian Academy of Sciences remapping of the glaciers on the mountain indicate a 15% loss in area from 1911 to 1957 and 7% loss from 1957-2000.
2013 Landsat of Mount Elbrus and its glaciers.
2009 Google Earth image of Azau Glacier.
In 1998 the glacier descended to an elevation of 2650 m ending at the yellow arrow. The pink arrow indicates a knob adjacent to the 2013 terminus. The red arrows indicate the length of the connection of the slope glacier to the west of the main valley tongue of the Azau Glacier, it is 1 km. The orange arrows indicates a thin connection between two segments of the upper glacier on the western slopes above Azau Glacier. IN 2001 the terminus has retreated a short distance from 1998. By 2013 the terminus has retreated 450 m to just beneath the knob at the pink arrow, 30 m per year. The terminus is now at 2850 meters. The glacier on the western slopes has separated at the orange arrow and the connection at the red arrows has been reduced to 200 meters from 1000 meters in 1998. A close up view of the terminus in 2009 indicates that it is still just downvalley of the prominent knob. Only the lower 300 m of the glacier is uncrevassed, above this point active crevassing is widespread. The Krugozor Ski Station is also noted. This glacier is retreating faster now than during the 1957-2000 period like the Irik Glacier to the east on Mount Elbrus. This likewise is the pattern of retreat observed elsewhere in the Caucasus at Gora Bashkara,Kirtisho Glacier and Lednik Karaugom Glacier. The glacier still has an extensive accumulation zone.
1998 Landsat image
2001 Landsat Image
2013 Landsat Image
2009 Google Earth Image
In the vicinity of Bashkara Glacier in the Western Caucasus we examine using Landsat imagery the response of several glacier over the 1998 to 2013 period. This region has been experiencing widespread significant retreat (Shahgedanova et al 2009), with average retreat of 8 m per year due in large part to increased summer temperatures. This region has been an area of increased proglacial lake formation as well Stokes et al (2007). Petrakov et al (2011) examined changes in the lakes at the margin of Bashkara Glacier. They examined three lakes near the margin of the glacier and identified large expansion of two of them due to glacier retreat. They found the terminus reach to be stagnant and thinned 13 meters from 1999 to 2007. Lake Lapa has expanded eastward 250 m since 1999 due to terminus retreat Petrakov et al (2011).
Image from Petrakov et al (2011). Lake Lapo=1 and Lake Bashkara=2.
In 1998 only Bashkara Lake is substantial in sie, yellow arrow. Two valleys to the west an unnamed glacier ends at the red arrow after taking a sharp right turn. At the pink arrow an unnamed mountain glacier descends from the upper basin at m to the lower valley where it terminates. In 2001 little has changed at the three locations. By 2013 Lake Lapo the western most lake at the yellow arrow has expanded as the glacier has retreated that Petrakov et al (2011) noted. The unnamed glacier at the red arrow has retreated 500 m and now barely rounds the turn to the west. At the pink arrow the glacier now no longer descends from the upper basin to the lower valley. The terminus region in the valley bottom has melted away, a retreat of 400-500 m. The retreat of these glacier follows that of other glacier in the region Great Azau Glacier, Kirtisho Glacier and Lednik Karaugom Glacier.
1998 Landsat image
2001 Landsat image
2013 Landsat image
The southern flank of the Caucasus Mountains is in the nation of Georgia. Ten kilometers southwest of the Lednik Karaugom Glacier, Russia from the previous post is Kirtisho Glacier a 4.5 km long valley glacier, a small subglacier KS is also examined in this post. The glaciers in the Causcasus Mountains have been undergoing a significant retreat, the USGS, (2010) Satellite Image Atlas of Asia, noted that nearly all of the 65 glaciers examined in this region experienced significant retreat from 1987-2004. Shahgedanova et al, (2009) noted a 8 meters per year average retreat rate for the 1985-2000 period. To get a feel for the terrain watch the trailer for the On the Trails of the Glaciers- Caucasus 2011. The video does not show Kirtisho Glacier but does indicate the nature of the terrain. This is a project of an Italian group Macromicro, that had contacted me about an upcoming expedition to Alaska in 2013. Landsat images from 1986 (second image) and 2012 (third image) along with 2011 Google Earth imagery (top and bottom image) are shown below. Kirtisho Glacier has a top elevation of 3700 meters and a terminus that in 2012 is at 2600 meters, and was 2400 m in 1986. The snowline has typically been at 3300 meters, blue arrow, which is too high to sustain the terminus at 2600 m. The terminus position in 1986 is indicated by a red and yellow arrow that are also used in the 2012 imagery and the 2011 terminus closeup. The magenta arrow in the Landsat images indicates the beginning of a separation from an northern tributary, which is close to the snowline. The terminus itself is not crevassed in the lowest 400 meters, suggesting retreat will continue for this nearly stagnant section. KS the small glacier to the south, has decreased in area from 0.45 km2 in 1986 to 0.20 km2 in 2012. We also examine this more below.
The KS glacier viewed up close is quite thin, with limited crevasses. The red arrows indicate rock protruding through this glacier in many locations. These rocks indicate how thin the ice is, and will help absorb heat and hasten melting as the rock outcrops expand. In 2011 and in the 2012 imagery there is no remaining snow on the glacier. A glacier without a persistent accumulation zone cannot survive (Pelto, 2010). KS glacier will not survive much longer.
Lednik Karaugom Glacier is a large 13 km long, valley glacier in the Caucasus Mountains of Northern Ossetia, Russia. The glacier drains into the Urukh River which joins the Terek River and then flows into the Caspian Sea. This post compares Landsat imagery from 1986, 2010 and 2012, an image from the USGS in 2002 and Google Earth imagery from 2009. This glacier has experienced a general retreat like all the glacier draining north from the Caucasus Mountains. USGS, (2010) Satellite Image Atlas of Asia, noted that nearly all of the 65 glaciers examined in this region experienced significant retreat from 1987-2004, noting a retreat of Karaugom of 600 m. Maria Shahgedanova, has an ongoing project examining Caucasus glaciers. Shahgedanova et al, (2009) noted a 8 meters per year average retreat rate for the 1985-2000 period. The glacier retreat has led to an increase in debris cover and an increase in the number of proglacial and supraglacial lakes. (Stokes et al , 2007) This glacier begins at the Russia-Georgia border and extends up to the base of Gora Uilpata at 4200 meters. There is a substantial icefall separating the accumulation zone above 3500 meters from the ablation zone of the valley tongue beginning at 2500 m.from 1987-2002. In the series of images below the yellow arrow indicates the 1986 terminus position, the pink arrow the 2012 terminus position, the orange arrow the 2002 terminus position and the blue arrow the former connection with a tributary. The retreat from 1986 to 2012 is 1300 meters, about 50 meters/year. The retreat of the tributary from the main glacier has been 200 meters, or 8 meters/year.
A closeup of the terminus indicates the amount of debris cover, and the formation of ogives at the base of the icefall. The lateral moraine marking the previous ice surface elevation is also noted with a green arrow. This glacier remains vigorous in its flow, with substantial crevassing and ongoing crevasse formation. The retreat is ongoing but the end of the glacier is not stagnant, though the lower 300 meters has reduced crevassing and width. The degree of crevassing at the green arrows at a small icefall 300 meters above the terminus indicates both ice thickness and flow and suggest that the retreat will likely be reduced in the near future. The behavior is similar to that of Lednik Fytnargin and Irik Glacier on Mount Elbrus