Index of Glacier Posts June 2009-June 2011

Glacier Index List
Below is a list of the individual glacier posts examining our warming climates impact on each glacier. This represents the first two years of posts, 115 total posts, 108 different glaciers. I have worked directly on 34 of the glaciers described below. Other glaciers were selected based on fine research that I had come across, cited in each post, I then look at additional often more recent imagery to expand on that research. The imagery comes either from MODIS, Landsat, Geoeye or Google Earth.
North America
Columbia Glacier, Washington
Lyman Glacier, Washington
Boulder Glacier, Washington
Ptarmigan Ridge Glacier, Washington
Anderson Glacier, Washington
Milk Lake Glacier, Washington
Paradise Glacier, Washington
Easton Glacier, Washington
Redoubt Glacier, Washington
Honeycomb Glacier, Washington
Vista Glacier, Washington
Rainbow Glacier, Washington
Daniels Glacier, Washington
Colonial Glaer, Washington
Quien Sabe Glacier, Washington
Fairchild Glacier, Washington
White Glacier, Washington
Banded Glacier, Washington
Hinman Glacier, Washington
Bubagoo Glacier, British Columbia
Hector Glacier, Alberta
Helm Glacier, British Columbia
Warren Glacier, British Columbia
Castle Creek Glacier, British Columbia
Hoboe Glacier, British Columbia
Tulsequah Glacier, British Columbia
Decker and Spearhead Glacier, British Columbia
Columbia Glacier, British Columbia
Freshfield Glacier, British Columbia
Devon Ice Cap, Nunavut
Penny ice Cap, Nunavut
Minor Glacier, Wyoming
Grasshopper Glacier, Wyoming
Grasshopper Glacier, Montana
Harrison Glacier, Montana
Sperry Glacier, Montana
Hopper Glacier, Montana
Old Sun Glacier, Montana
Yakutat Glacier, Alaska
Grand Plateau Glacier, Alaska
Gilkey Glacier , Alaska
Gilkey Glacier ogives, Alaska
Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska
Taku Glacier, Alaska
Bear Lake Glacier, Alaska
Chickamin Glacier, Alaska
Okpilak Glacier, Alaska
Sawyer Glacier, Alaska
Antler Glacier, Alaska
East Taklanika Glacier, Alaska
Brady Glacier, Alaska
Thiel Glacier, Alaska

New Zealand
Tasman Glacier
Murchison Glacier
Donne Glacier
Africa
Rwenzori Glaciers
Himalaya
Zemu Glacier, Sikkim
Theri Kang Glacier, Bhutan
Zemestan Glacier, Afghanistan
Khumbu Glacier, Nepal
Imja Glacier, Nepal
Gangotri Glacier, India
Satopanth Glacier, India
Menlung Glacier, Tibet
Boshula Glaciers, Tibet
Urumquihe Glacier, Tibet
Sara Umaga Glacier, India

Europe
Mer de Glace, France
Dargentiere Glacier, France
Obeeraar Glacier, Austria
Ochsentaler Glacier, Austria
Pitzal Glacier, Austria
Dosde Glacier, Italy
Maladeta Glacier, Spain
Presena Glacier, Italy
Triftgletscher, Switzerland
Rotmoosferner, Austria
Stubai Glacier, Austria
Ried Glacier, Switzerland
Forni Glacier, Italy
Peridido Glacier, Spain
Engabreen, Norway
Midtdalsbreen, Norway
TungnaarJokull, Iceland
Gigjokull, Iceland
Skeidararjokull, Iceland
LLednik Fytnargin, Russia
Rembesdalsskaka, Norway

Greenland
Mittivakkat Glacier
Ryder Glacier
Humboldt Glacier
Petermann Glacier
Kuussuup Sermia
Jakobshavn Isbrae
South America
Colonia Glacier, Chile
Artesonraju Glacier, Peru
Nef Glacier, Chile
Tyndall Glacier, Chile
Zongo Glacier, Bolivia
Llaca Glacier, Peru
Seco Glacier, Argentina
Antarctica and Circum Antarctic Islands
Pine Island Glacier
Fleming Glacier
Hariot Glacier
Amsler Island
Stephenson Glacier, Heard Island
Neumayer, South Georgia
Ampere, Kerguelen

North Cascade Glacier Climate Project Reports

Forecasting Glacier Survival
North Cascade Glacier Mass Balance 2010
Columbia Glacier Annual Time Lapse
North Cascade Glacier Climate Project 2009 field season

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Mass Balance of the Easton Glacier 2009

Immediately below is Easton Glacier on Mt. Baker in the North Cascades in late May 2009. The glacier is still completely snow covered. The bench where the small gray cloud shadows are at 6000 feet averages 20 feet of snow remaining.
easton 5-20-09 (1)Easton Glacier extends from the terminus at 5600 feet to the slopes near Sherman Crater at 9000 feet. Each summer since 1990 NCGCP has measured the mass balance of this glacier. View Youtube for a pictorial review of the full 2009 field season . The glacier has retreated 300 m since 1990. During this same period the glacier has lost a cumulative mean of 13 m of thickness. Given a thickness in 1990 between 60 and 75 m, this is about 20 % of the total glacier volume. The image below shows the terminus in 2009(green=2009, 2006=brown, red=2003, purple=1993 and yellow=1984). Measuring mass balance requires assessing snowpack depth and areal extent at the end of the summer melt season and the amount of melting in areas where blue ice or firn (snow more than a year old) is exposed. Below is measuring crevasse stratigraphy and below that emplacing a stake to measure ablation with weather instruments on it. f25f18

Mass Balance = residual snow accumulation – ice-firn melting.

The melt season began a bit late just when the May picture was taken Winter snowpack was between 75and 90% of normal in the area as of April 1. The melt season had been late to begin and snowpack by late May was near normal. Record heat was experienced at the end of May and the start of June, quickly causing snowpack to fall below normal.Each year we measure the snow depth via probing and crevasse stratigraphy at more than 200 locations. These depth measurements allow the completion of a map of snow distribution. This map is completed in early August and updated, based on a smaller number of observation in late September. The amount of melting is assessed from stakes emplaced in the glacier and the recession of the snowline in areas where snow pack depth has been assessed. below are images from early and then mid-August indicating the rise of the snowline. DSC02239easton8-16-09
A warm June and July caused exceptional snow pack melt and by early August when we began assessing snow pack depth retained, the snowcover had receded to the 6400 foot level, 300-400 feet higher than normal. Snowpack remained below normal all the way to the 8600 foot level. the snowpack since early July had been rising nearly 100 feet per week. By mid-August at right the snow line on the glacier averaged 6800 feet. By mid and Late September the snowline had risen to 7400 feet a rate of rise of 150 feet per week since mid-August. Below is an image from mid-September 2009. The amount of melting on the glacier in July was the highest we have measured totaling, 2.1 m. This led to the exposure of a couple of new bedrock knobs evident in the picture at right near the 2100 meters, black arrows. Overall the mass balance of the glacier in 2009 was a negative 2.06 m. This glacier averages 55-70 m in thickness and this mass balance loss represents a 3% volume loss in a single year for the glacier.